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From GPT-3 to GPT-4: How OpenAI is Revolutionising Large Language Models

Updated: Sep 27, 2023

Intro to Large Language Models (LLMs)

In the rapidly evolving world of artificial intelligence, large language models have emerged as astonishing breakthroughs, revolutionizing the way machines understand and generate human language. With their vast capabilities and applications, they have the potential to transform various industries and reshape the future of AI.

Large language models are state-of-the-art AI systems designed to comprehend and generate human-like text. These models are built on deep learning techniques, employing advanced neural network architectures such as Transformers. By extensively training on massive amounts of text data, they acquire an in-depth understanding of context, grammar, and semantics, enabling them to generate coherent and meaningful responses. LLMs learn from vast datasets, leveraging unsupervised learning to predict the probability of the next word in a given sentence or piece of text. Through countless iterations, these models grasp the intricacies of language patterns, enabling them to generate human-like text responses and perform language-related tasks effectively.

The applications of large language models are vast and span across numerous domains:

  • Natural Language Understanding: These models excel in tasks such as sentiment analysis, entity recognition, and language translation, enabling accurate interpretation and comprehension of text data.

  • Language Generation: From composing human-like stories and generating conversational responses to aiding content creators and writers, large language models empower creative expression and assist in content generation.

  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: By leveraging large language models, chatbots and virtual assistants enhance customer service experiences by providing personalized, natural, and context-aware interactions.

  • Research and Data Analysis: Language models aid researchers in processing vast amounts of scientific literature, extracting insights, and accelerating discoveries.

  • Language Tutoring: These models have the potential to assist in language learning, offering personalized feedback, engaging exercises, and enhancing the overall learning experience.

Here are some of the most important language models available on the market in 2023:

  • GPT-3/GPT-4 (Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 & 4) by OpenAI [1][2]

  • BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) by Google [3][4]

  • T5 (Text-to-Text Transfer Transformer) by Google [5]

  • MT-NLG (Megatron-Turing Natural Language Generation model) by Nvidia [6]

These language models have been highly influential in advancing the capabilities of natural language processing tasks. Each has its unique strengths and use cases. However, it is worth noting that there are other significant language models in addition to these.

OpenAI and ChatGPT

OpenAI, a research organization founded in 2015, has become synonymous with breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. Committed to developing AI that benefits all of humanity, OpenAI combines cutting-edge research, engineering expertise, and a dedication to ethical considerations.

ChatGPT, a brainchild of OpenAI, is an exceptional language model designed to engage in dynamic and meaningful conversations. Building upon the success of previous models like GPT-3, ChatGPT pushes the boundaries of conversational AI. Trained using reinforcement learning from human feedback, ChatGPT learns to provide contextually relevant responses, making it an exciting tool for chatbot development and user interaction.

ChatGPT demonstrates remarkable capabilities that have captured the attention of both AI enthusiasts and businesses alike:

  • Contextual Understanding: With an understanding of the conversational context, ChatGPT offers more coherent and contextually appropriate responses, resulting in more engaging interactions.

  • Expanded Domain Expertise: ChatGPT can now excel in a wider range of domains, thanks to OpenAI's use of fine-tuning and its ability to incorporate specific knowledge and expertise.

  • Adaptive Conversations: By employing techniques like system-level "persona prompts" and reactive planning, ChatGPT adapts to user instructions, allowing for more interactive and dynamic conversations.

A robot telling to a woman who is typing on a laptop

GPT-4 Improvements over GPT-3

GPT-4 brings several improvements compared to its predecessor, GPT-3. These enhancements aim to increase reliability, creativity, collaboration, and the ability to process nuanced instructions.

According to OpenAI, GPT-4 offers a larger context window than GPT-3[2][7]. The context length is the length of the prompt plus the maximum number of tokens in the completion. The standard and extended GPT-4 models currently offer about 8,000 and 32,000 tokens for the context, respectively, as opposed to the 2,049 and 4,096 offered by GPT-3 and GPT-3.5[7][8]. This larger context window facilitates better long-term memory and can enable GPT-4 to process long and complex language structures[9]. The larger context window also enhances GPT-4's problem-solving abilities and its ability to provide accurate and nuanced responses over more extended dialogs. This means that GPT-4 may outperform GPT-3 in various contexts that require natural language dialogue and language generation tasks[10].

Recent research suggests that GPT-4 has enhanced capabilities to deal with complex prompts and logic. One of GPT-4's most significant improvements is its ability to understand more complex and nuanced prompts, exhibiting human-level performance on various professional and academic benchmarks. GPT-4's increased capability in performing logical reasoning tasks has been confirmed by various analyses and studies [11][12]. According to a report published on the arXiv preprint server, the release of GPT-4 has marked an “advanced” status to reasoning tasks, demonstrating a significant improvement in logical reasoning abilities compared to its predecessor, GPT-3 [11]. GPT-4's advancement in this area can be attributed to its robust architecture, which includes a massive number of parameters and attention mechanisms that enable the model to understand the relationship between words or tokens in a sentence and make complex inferences.

In addition, a "Tree of Thoughts" framework has been developed, which combines tree search and GPT-4 to enhance the GPT-4's logic capabilities and dramatically improve its problem-solving abilities. Using the framework, GPT-4 builds a tree of candidate solutions, which are queried for the best answer. This process adds an element of reasoning to GPT-4, providing a way to leverage valuable information from the context and adjust the output in real-time to arrive at a more accurate and comprehensive result [13]. Overall, GPT-4's enhanced capability to deal with complex prompts and logic marks significant progress in natural language processing and reinforcement learning research, paving the way for new applications in several fields.

GPT-4 is reportedly larger and more powerful than GPT-3, boasting 1.76 trillion parameters, with 220 billion parameters each [14]. This is a significant increase compared to GPT-3, which had 175 billion parameters [15]. The increased size and capacity of GPT-4 enable it to capture and understand more complex patterns and relationships in the data it is trained on allows for more nuanced and accurate language generation. With a greater number of parameters, GPT-4 can process a wider range of information and generate more fluent and contextually relevant responses [14]. The massive parameter size enables GPT-4 to better comprehend and produce various forms of natural language text, both formal and informal [16].

GPT-4 possesses the capability to accept both image and text inputs while generating text outputs[17]. The introduction of multimodal capabilities in GPT-4 opens up a range of new applications and possibilities.

One key application of GPT-4's multimodal capabilities is in the field of content generation. By incorporating images as inputs, GPT-4 can generate text that is more contextually relevant and coherent[18]. This enables the generation of rich multimedia content, such as generating detailed descriptions of images or creating captions for videos. These capabilities have implications for various industries, including advertising, marketing, and content creation[19].

Another application is in the domain of virtual assistants and chatbots. By interpreting and responding to both text and image inputs, GPT-4 can enhance the interactive experience by providing more comprehensive and accurate responses[20]. For example, a virtual assistant using GPT-4 could understand and respond to visual cues, such as interpreting an image of a product and providing detailed information or recommendations based on that image. This opens up new possibilities for improving user interactions and enhancing the capabilities of virtual assistants in various domains.

The multimodal capabilities of GPT-4 also hold potential in fields like healthcare and education. Medical diagnostics could benefit from GPT-4's ability to process and analyze both textual and visual medical data, leading to more accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment recommendations[21]. In education, GPT-4's multimodal capabilities could enhance the learning experience by providing explanations and examples that incorporate images, making complex concepts more accessible and engaging[8].

While the applications of GPT-4's multimodal capabilities are still being explored, they offer exciting possibilities in various industries and domains. From content generation to virtual assistants, healthcare, and education, GPT-4's ability to process and integrate multiple modalities has the potential to revolutionize various fields.

Limitations of GPT-4 and Ethical Considerations

As artificial intelligence (AI) continues to advance, language models like GPT-4 developed by OpenAI have garnered significant attention. GPT-4 boasts impressive capabilities, but it is crucial to acknowledge its limitations and consider the ethical implications associated with AI text generation.

  • Some Lack of Contextual Understanding: While GPT-4 displays remarkable text generation capabilities, it still struggles with truly understanding very complex context especially when such context involves long logic chains of reasoning. The model lacks true comprehension and cannot truly reason or understand nuanced meanings in text, leading to potentially inaccurate or misleading responses.

  • Vulnerability to Bias: GPT-4, like its predecessors, is trained on large datasets that contain biases present in the text used during training. This can result in biased or discriminatory outputs, perpetuating societal stereotypes and unequal representation. Care must be taken to address and mitigate these biases to ensure fair and unbiased text generation.

  • Inability to Handle Ambiguity: Ambiguity in language poses a significant challenge for GPT-4. The model may provide multiple plausible responses without clearly discerning the intended meaning, leading to confusion or misinformation. This limitation becomes particularly problematic when generating text in critical or sensitive domains like healthcare, law, or finance.

  • Overconfidence and False Information: GPT-4 can exhibit unwarranted self-assurance in its responses, even when the information it provides is incorrect or misleading. Users must exercise caution and independently verify the generated content, especially in situations where accuracy and reliability are crucial.

  • Lack of Accountability: As a language model, GPT-4 is a tool and the responsibility for its output lies with its users and developers. However, the lack of transparency regarding the model's decision-making processes and the absence of mechanisms for accountability raise concerns. It is essential to establish clear guidelines and frameworks to define liability and responsibility in AI text generation.

Ethical Considerations:
  • Misinformation and Disinformation: GPT-4's text generation capabilities raise concerns about the potential for misuse, such as the creation and dissemination of false information. Safeguards should be implemented to minimize the risk of AI-generated misinformation, ensuring that the technology is used responsibly and does not contribute to the spread of falsehoods.

  • Privacy and Data Security: AI language models like GPT-4 often require vast amounts of data to train effectively. This data may include personal information, which raises privacy and data security concerns. Strict data governance frameworks should be established to protect user privacy and prevent misuse of personal data.

  • Manipulation and Propaganda: AI-generated text could be manipulated to spread propaganda or maliciously influence public opinion. The potential for AI-generated deepfake text raises ethical and societal concerns that need to be addressed through robust regulations, vigilant monitoring, and technologically advanced solutions.

  • Autonomy and Human Responsibility: When employing AI in decision-making processes or critical contexts, the question of human responsibility arises. GPT-4 should be seen as a tool to aid human decision-making rather than a replacement for human judgment. Humans must retain control and take ultimate responsibility for the actions and decisions influenced by AI-generated text.

Looking Ahead: Anticipating GPT-5's Capabilities and Features

Artificial intelligence continues to push boundaries with each passing year, and the advancements in language models have been particularly impressive. OpenAI's GPT-4 has already showcased significant improvements in natural language understanding and conversation abilities. As of now, OpenAI has not provided an official release date for ChatGPT-5. The development and deployment of such advanced language models are complex processes that require rigorous testing and refinement. However, given the pace of technological progress and OpenAI's commitment to innovation, it is reasonable to expect the arrival of GPT-5 in the near future. Below is a list of features that we might expect to find in the successor of GPT-4.

  • Enhanced Conversation Abilities: GPT-5 is expected to build upon the conversational prowess of its predecessors, includingGPT-4. It will likely exhibit improved contextual understanding, better handling of ambiguous queries, and an enhanced ability to maintain coherent and engaging conversations. By refining its response generation, GPT-5 might have the potential to set a new benchmark for AI-powered conversational agents.

  • Expanded Multimodal Capabilities: Building upon the successes of GPT-4's multimodal capabilities, GPT-5 might further integrate and process bigger and more diverse inputs than GPT-4. Consequently, GPT-5 could become an even more versatile tool across various industries, including marketing, content creation, and customer service. Furthermore, it would be fascinating to see new GPT-5 capabilities that could be employed in the Robotics domain like sensor data processing and understanding.

  • Enhanced Fine-tuning Capabilities: Fine-tuning refers to the process of adapting a pre-trained model to suit specific tasks or domains. GPT-5 is likely to offer more advanced and flexible fine-tuning capabilities, allowing users to tailor the model's responses to specific needs. This will enable developers and organizations to train and deployGPT-5 for a wide range of specialized use cases, accelerating adoption across industries.

  • Better Control over Biases: Addressing bias in AI models has been a persistent concern. GPT-5 is expected to introduce novel techniques and approaches to mitigate bias, providing users with improved control and transparency during conversations. This feature will undoubtedly contribute to a more socially responsible and inclusive use of AI language models.

  • Continuing Ethical Considerations: As AI language models evolve and become more powerful, ethical considerations become increasingly important. OpenAI's commitment to responsible AI development and deployment will likely be carried forward to GPT-5. Continued efforts to ensure fairness, privacy, and transparency will be vital in mitigating potential risks and fostering ethical guidelines for users.

While the precise release date of GPT-5 remains speculative, it is an exciting prospect that promises further advancements in natural language understanding and conversational capabilities. Enhanced contextual understanding, expanded multimodal capabilities, and improved control over biases are among the anticipated features. It is essential for OpenAI and the AI community as a whole to prioritize ethical considerations to foster responsible AI deployment.


GPT-4 represents a significant advancement in AI text generation, but it is not without limitations. The lack of deep contextual understanding, susceptibility to bias, and challenges with ambiguity necessitate careful usage and scrutiny. Ethical considerations surrounding misinformation, privacy, manipulation, and human responsibility further emphasize the need for responsible development, deployment, and regulation of AI language models. As we continue to harness the potential of AI text generation, it is crucial to address these limitations and ethical concerns to ensure a responsible and beneficial integration of this technology into society.


  1. TechTarget: 12 of the best large language models

  2. OpenAI: GPT-4

  3. Google Research: Open Sourcing BERT: State-of-the-Art Pre-training for Natural Language Processing

  4. Arxiv: BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding

  5. Arxiv: Exploring the Limits of Transfer Learning with a Unified Text-to-Text Transformer

  6. NVIDIA DEVELOPER: Megatron-Turing Natural Language Generation

  7. OpenAI: What is the difference between the GPT-4 models?

  8. Wikipedia: GPT-4

  9. All About AI: GPT-4 Prompt Engineering: Why Larger Context Window is a Game-Changer

  10. How To Geek: GPT 3.5 vs. GPT 4: What's the Difference?

  11. Arxiv: Evaluating the Logical Reasoning Ability of ChatGPT and GPT-4

  12. Muo: The 5 Best New GPT-4 Features Explained

  13. The Decoder: GPT-4's logic capabilities can be enhanced with a "Tree of Thoughts"

  14. MIT Technology Review: GPT-4 is bigger and better than ChatGPT—but OpenAI won’t say why

  15. Wikipedia: GPT-3

  16. Accubits Blog: GPT-3 vs GPT-4: A Detailed Comparison of Capabilities and Differences

  17. OpenAI: GPT-4

  18. LinkedIn Post by Akaike Technologies: 5 Real-Life Examples of GPT 4's Truly Multimodal Capabilities

  19. Pure AI: OpenAI Releases GPT-4 with Multimodal Capabilities

  20. Microsoft Azure Blog: Introducing GPT-4 in Azure OpenAI Service

  21. DataConomy: Tracing the evolution of a revolutionary idea: GPT-4 and multimodal AI

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